By M. Vandorn. Central College.
The role of HLA maternal HLA antigens during fetal life discount eldepryl 5 mg line. Effect of HLA- necessary not only for blood type but also for HLA? Bone matching recipients to donor noninherited maternal antigens on Marrow Transplant 5mg eldepryl sale. High-resolution donor- tion for hematologic malignancy order 5 mg eldepryl with amex. Biol Blood Marrow Trans- recipient HLA matching contributes to the success of unrelated plant. HLA-C antigen plant outcome in hematological malignancies. Proc Natl Acad mismatch is associated with worse outcome in unrelated donor SciUSA. Indirect evidence that associate with adverse outcomes in hematopoietic stem cell maternal microchimerism in cord blood mediates a graft-versus- transplantation. Scaradavou A, Carrier C, Mollen N, Stevens C, Rubinstein P. Detection of maternal DNA in placental/umbilical cord blood Lancet Oncol. Effect of donor-recipient presence of maternal cells in human umbilical cord blood. Exp HLA matching at HLA A, B, C, and DRB1 on outcomes after Hematol. Survival after T dysplastic syndrome: a retrospective analysis. NK cells–from bench to haematopoietic cell transplantation from matched unrelated clinic. Donors with GvHD prophylaxis with or without anti-T-cell globulin ATG- group B KIR haplotypes improve relapse-free survival after fresenius. Young1 1Hematology Branch, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD Historically viewed in isolation as an odd, rare, and invariably fatal blood disease, aplastic anemia is now of substantial interest for its immune pathophysiology, its relationship to constitutional BM failure syndromes and leukemia, and the success of both stem cell transplantation and immunosuppressive therapies in dramatically improving survival of patients. Once relegated to a few presentations in the red cell and anemia sessions of the ASH, the Society now sponsors multiple simultaneous sessions and plenary and scientiﬁc committee presentations on these topics. This update emphasizes developments in our understanding of immune mechanisms and hematopoietic stem cell biology and new clinical approaches to stem cell stimulation as a therapy, alone and in combination with conventional suppression of the aberrant immune system. Introduction There are abundant laboratory data supporting an immune Advances in BM failure syndromes now are almost annual topics in pathophysiology, but detailed mechanisms are lacking—as they the ASH Educational Program, and this review therefore empha- are for most human autoimmune or immune-mediated diseases. The reader is referred to more comprehen- lymphocytes and type 1 cytokines appear to be the proximate sive publications for fuller discussions and ample bibliographies. T-regulatory cells appeared to be deﬁcient in quantity10 and function11 and their numbers were strikingly different in the Blood counts can be decreased in overwhelming infection (eg, bacterial sepsis) and secondary to a few diseases (eg, cirrhosis with randomized trial of horse versus rabbit ATG, with recovery hypersplenism, systemic lupus), but severe persistent pancytopenia correlating with better response. In large granular lymphocyto- has a limited differential diagnosis and almost always implies BM sis, in which a single T-cell clone dominates and suppresses BM involvement. The “empty” BM deﬁnes aplastic anemia by a simple function, acquired mutations in STAT3 are prevalent and function- ally would result in constitutive activation12 (acquired STAT3 and uniform criterion with little pathologic variation or need for reﬁned classiﬁcation based on morphology. The BM is not truly mutations have been reported in autoimmune diseases). These 4 mutations may also be present in acquired aplastic anemia. Mouse models of aplastic anemia, produced by the destruction of BM cells using radiation, Genomics applied to oligoclones in BM failure states might cytotoxic drugs, and immune cells, have been useful in deﬁning the reveal an acquired genetic basis for abnormal persistence of an hematopoietic stem cell and illustrating the potency of small initially appropriate immune response (Figure 1). Long-term initiating cells and cobble- stone-forming cells are as close as we can assay the human stem cells and these too are sparse in all patients. Despite sophisticated Immune-mediated BM destruction assays, blood counts, presumably reﬂecting stem cell reserve, are The most powerful evidence that acquired aplastic anemia in adults the best predictors of outcome in nontransplantation therapy. In our Although the “Camitta criteria” continue to be used to deﬁne severe most recent National Institutes of Health (NIH) clinical trial of aplastic anemia, in the era of immunosuppression, reticulocytes and standard horse antithymocyte globulin (ATG) and cyclosporine, lymphocytes pretreatment14 and the robustness of the hematologic nearly 70% of patients had hematologic responses at 6 months. Likely also correlating with stem cell reserve ATG or Campath, a further 30% of primary nonresponders show are the better outcomes in children compared with adults and, as hematologic improvement to transfusion independence. That a one-third, either relapse or need sustained cyclosporine administra- stem cell stimulator small molecule can improve blood counts in tion to maintain their blood counts. A long taper of cyclosporine can some chronic refractory aplastic anemia patients and accelerate delay relapse and patients may do well on very low doses of drug.
Fas expression appears to be similar on NK cells to migrate to lymph nodes purchase eldepryl 5mg line, the BM buy eldepryl 5 mg cheap, and other environ- overnight IL-2–activated NK cells compared with fresh NK cells buy 5 mg eldepryl otc. In contrast, Fas expression increases when NK cells are maintained ments where tumors reside. The expression of chemokine receptors in IL-2 for more than 2 days or when NK cells are expanded with on NK cells may be critical to this process. NK cells expanded with genetically modiﬁed K562 cells contain predominantly CD56 /16 either EBV-LCL or K562 cells, increasing their susceptibility to rhFasL-mediated apoptosis. In contrast to Fas, surface expression of the TRAIL death that mbIL-21–expressing K562 feeder cells can be further geneti- receptors DR4 and DR5 do not appear to be affected by NK cell cally modiﬁed to express other transgenes, the products of which activation or in vitro expansion. These data suggest that expanded can be rapidly and transiently expressed in NK cells via trogocytosis NK cells are more susceptible to Fas-mediated apoptosis compared by coculturing with expanded NK cells. K562 cells expressing with fresh and overnight IL-2–activated NK cells, potentially mbIL-21 and CCR7 (clone9. CCR7) rapidly transferred CCR7 to enhancing their susceptibility in vivo to apoptosis. Methods to expanded NK after a brief 1-hour culture, with up to 80% of NK expand activated NK cells while avoiding up-regulation in Fas cells acquiring CCR7 surface expression (Figure 5). The relative ease of this approach to modify NK cells ability to home and trafﬁc to the microenvironment where the tumor potentially makes it a viable strategy for scale-up under GMP resides. Therefore, maintaining and/or enforcing the expression of conditions to explore its ability to improve ex vivo–expanded NK homing receptors in expanded NK cell populations is required to cell homing in humans. To move from the bloodstream into inﬂamed tissue sites, leukocytes Although NK cells cultured with irradiated EBV-LCL can be must attach to the vascular endothelium, migrate between adjacent expanded by more than 1000-fold and are more cytotoxic to tumor endothelial cells, and penetrate the basement membrane. NK cell trogocytosis as a method to increase NK cell surface expression of CCR7. Culturing previously tissues, where hematological malignancies reside. As discussed expanded NK cells in medium containing no or low doses of IL-2 previously, investigators have reported an NK cell expansion (0-5 IU/mL) for 24 hours resulted in a substantial decline in NK cell technique that uses NAM in the medium, which appears to cytotoxicity against K562 and other tumor target cells compared substantially increase CD62L expression on NK cells, leading to with cultures containing 50-500 IU/mL of IL-2, where cytotoxicity their improved homing into the spleens and BM of immune- was maintained. Likewise, spontaneous secretion of FasL and deﬁcient mice. These data suggest that cytokine dependence may occur surface expression compared with cultures without NAM. These data suggest that NK cell expansion techniques that Cryopreservation/thawing incorporate NAM-containing media could be used as a method to The ability to cryopreserve and subsequently thaw NK cells while improve NK cell trafﬁcking to the BM, potentially enhancing the maintaining their cytolytic activity could logistically facilitate antitumor effects of adoptively transferred NK cells against a clinical trials evaluating multiple rounds of adoptive NK cell variety of hematological malignancies. NK cells isolated from fresh PBMCs can be cryopre- served, have viability in the range of 80% to 90% upon thawing, can Dependence on cytokines be activated with overnight culture in IL-2, and expand well ex vivo Methods used to activate and/or expand NK cells ex vivo may affect with the use of various feeder-cell–based expansion methods. Ex 4-1BBL–expressing K562 feeder cells maintained excellent stabil- vivo–expanded NK cells have enhanced cytokine secretion proﬁles ity after cryopreservation, with an average 91% viability (range and are signiﬁcantly more cytotoxic to tumor cells, although 85%-94%) upon thawing; stability data were conﬁrmed for up to 12 maintenance of this activated state is often dependent on the months on expanded NK cells maintained in liquid nitrogen. We found that day 14 EBV-LCL– However, subsequent studies by the same group have shown low expanded NK cells had a rapid decline in both the percentage of NK recovery ( 30% in some cases) of cryopreserved cells after cells expressing TRAIL and NKG2D within 16-24 hours of IL-2 thawing and overnight culture and no in vivo expansion after removal from the medium. TRAIL and NKG2D expression was infusion into patients. Similarly, we found that NK cells expanded 242 American Society of Hematology Figure 6. Effects of freeze/thawing on the cytotoxicity and phenotype of expanded NK cells. Thawed NK cells were found to have of the NKG2A transcript have been used to silence NKG2A lower surface expression of TRAIL and NKG2D and were more expression in the NK cell line NKL. Although LVs thawed could be rescued by culturing in IL-2–containing medium, have been used to efﬁciently transfer genes into human T cells and although (Figure 6) the viability of thawed NK cells (assessed by the NK cell lines such as NK92 and NKL, LV transduction of fresh 7-AAD staining) declined from 93% to 97% immediately after and ex vivo–expanded human NK cells has been more challeng- thawing to 38% to 50% at 16 hours. The efﬁciency of LV transduction was improved when the NK differentiation, acquisition of self-tolerance, and tumor trafﬁcking cells were prestimulated ex vivo with IL-2, IL-15, or IL-21. For example, retroviral transduction of primary NK cells to 28. Transduced NK cells maintained infusion of expanded NK cells. The phenotype, cytokine production, enhance the natural killer cell versus multiple myeloma effect. Furthermore, anti-tumor effects of adoptively transferred NK cells in tumor- these investigators found that the transduction efﬁciency of freshly bearing hosts [abstract].
Breast CBE has been shown to down-stage the disease in a 19 healthcare may well be integrated into existing significant way eldepryl 5mg visa. However discount eldepryl 5 mg amex, so far generic 5 mg eldepryl mastercard, an effect on healthcare infrastructures. At limited resource level, mortality has not been proven – but the final results imaging services and radiation oncology services of the trials are yet to come. Public education should always be a major focus of a breast cancer program especially in settings where Breast cancer screening campaigns (BHGI patients present at late stages. The service must in- level 3) clude quality assurance and evaluation of cost- Breast cancer screening makes sense in countries effectiveness22. It has been proven effective in herself and can be treated with reasonable effort Sweden from 40 years onwards20. We therefore effective in countries with a younger population suggest a breast cancer program to be one of the and a low incidence of breast cancer. There would first cancer programs in low-resource settings to be too many false-positive findings due to dense address the issue of increasing numbers of cancer. The human and financial dence-based guidelines according to resources resources needed for such a campaign are also too available show encouraging results23! Patients pres- high to make it possible and effective in such a ent earlier, therapies become routine and the diag- population. In addition there are by far too few nosis of breast cancer is a challenge rather than a functioning mammography units let alone qualified fatal diagnosis! Breast and cervical cancer in 187 countries between IMPLEMENTING A BREAST CANCER 1980 and 2010: a systematic analysis. Lancet 2011;378: PROGRAM BY LEVEL OF RESOURCES 1461–84 2. Sankaranarayanan R, Swaminathan R, Brenner H, et al. The BHGI gives well-developed, evidence-based Cancer survival in Africa, Asia, and Central America: a guidelines for low- and middle-income countries population-based study. Lancet Oncol 2010;11:165–73 to set up their specific breast care programs. Optimisa- essential to acquire basic data to assess the magni- tion of breast cancer management in low-resource and 389 GYNECOLOGY FOR LESS-RESOURCED LOCATIONS middle-resource countries: executive summary of the 14. Making Breast Health Global Initiative consensus, 2010. Lancet choices in health: WHO guide to cost-effectiveness Oncol 2011;12:387–98 analysis. Randomized implementation for breast healthcare in low-income trial of breast self-examination in Shanghai: final results. Overview of the Breast J Natl Cancer Inst 2002;94:1445–57 Health Global Initiative Global Summit 2007. Estimates of worldwide mammography vs mammography alone in women at burden of cancer in 2008: GLOBOCAN 2008. Case-controlled study logy for rapid preliminary diagnosis of ultrasound- of the epidemiological risk factors for breast cancer in guided fine-needle aspiration of thyroid nodules. Br J Surg 1999;86:665–8 Telemedicine and e-Health 2011;17:763–7 7. Emerging breast cancer epidemic: evidence from breast examination: preliminary results from a cluster Africa. Case- 2011;103:1476–80 control study of body size and breast cancer risk in 19. Am J Epidemiol 2010;172:682–90 early detection methods for low and middle income 9. Population differ- countries, a review of the evidence. Breast 2012;(in ences in breast cancer: survey in indigenous African press) women reveals over-representation of triple-negative 20. J Clin Oncol 2009;27:4515–21 of population-based service screening with mammo- 10. Pathological prognostic factors in income and middle-income countries: do what you can breast cancer.
This study may not be applicable to the general population of patients with chronic noncancer pain because it only included a very small number of patients with a fairly uncommon safe 5mg eldepryl, specific condition 5 mg eldepryl amex. Two trials comparing long-acting oxymorphone with long-acting oxycodone were both rated fair quality buy 5 mg eldepryl. Methodological shortcomings included failure to adequately describe randomization methods or allocation concealment, high withdrawal rates, or lack of intent-to 26, 28 treat-analyses. In addition, the external validity of 1 of the trials was compromised because only about 70% of patients who entered the dose titration phase were eventually entered into the 26 18-day intervention phase. This trial, which evaluated patients with chronic low back pain, found no significant differences in efficacy at the end of the intervention phase between long- acting oxymorphone and long-acting oxycodone for all measures of pain control, global assessments, or limitations of daily activity. The second trial, which evaluated patients with osteoarthritis, did not assess statistical significance of differences between long-acting oxymorphone and long-acting oxycodone (analyses focused on differences vs. There were no clear differences in pain, function, or quality of life between long-acting oxymorphone compared with oxycodone at 40 mg daily and differences between oxymorphone 80 mg daily and oxycodone 40 mg daily were small, with uncertain statistical significance. Two head-to-head trials compared extended-release morphine to sustained-release 29, 30 oxycodone. One trial, which evaluated various chronic noncancer pain conditions, was rated fair quality and found no significant differences between the drugs for pain relief or quality of 29 30, 66, 67 life after 24 weeks. The second trial (the ACTION trial), which evaluated low back pain in patients, was rated poor quality because it was open-label, reported a high withdrawal rate (32. In addition, analyzed patients were unbalanced on demographic factors (race, etiology of pain). Although this trial found extended- release morphine superior to sustained-release oxycodone for improvement in pain, quality of sleep, and use of pain medications, these findings may have reflected methodological shortcomings in the trial rather than true differences between the drugs. One randomized, double-blinded trial compared extended-release (once-daily) to 25 sustained-release (twice-daily) morphine in 295 patients with osteoarthritis. Four treatment groups were evaluated: once-daily morphine in the morning, once-daily morphine in the evening, twice-daily morphine, and placebo. This study was rated fair quality and appeared to use adequate blinding and randomization (Evidence Table 4). Important limitations included high overall withdrawal rates and no explanation of how withdrawn patients were handled in data analysis. This study found that once-daily morphine was not significantly different than twice- daily morphine for all measures of pain control (Evidence Table 4). For sleep, 1 of 7 measures of sleep quality (overall sleep quality) showed a slight but significant improvement in patients receiving once-daily morphine in the morning (but not once-daily morphine in the evening) compared with twice-daily morphine; all other measures of sleep quality were not significantly Long-acting opioid analgesics 21 of 74 Final Update 6 Report Drug Effectiveness Review Project different between once- and twice-daily morphine. All 3 long-acting morphine arms were superior to placebo for most measures of efficacy. Withdrawal rates were similar in all active treatment groups. External validity of this trial was difficult to assess because the numbers of patients screened and eligible for entry were not reported, the length of follow-up for each drug regimen was only 4 weeks, and duration of pain and previous narcotic use in evaluated patients was not reported. A fair-quality crossover study compared the combination product morphine/naltrexone 32 with extended-release morphine in patients with osteoarthritis. After 2 weeks of treatment, there were no significant differences between groups on measures of pain intensity, mean daily pain score, or physical function. More patients taking morphine/naltrexone rated treatment “good”, “very good”, or “excellent” (91. On the stiffness subscale of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), there was a statistically significant difference in favor of morphine/naltrexone (2. One study compared extended-release hydromorphone to oxycodone in patients with 31 osteoarthritis using a noninferiority analysis and found similar efficacy for pain relief. It was not possible to determine whether the results of this trial were valid or due to bias because of unclear randomization methods, inadequate allocation concealment combined with differences between groups at baseline, an open-label design with patient-reported outcomes, and a high attrition rate. A good-quality Cochrane review found no trials comparing opioid rotation, switching, or substitution to other strategies such as dose escalation of a single opioid in patients with acute or 68 chronic pain. It found that evidence to support the practice of opioid switching was largely anecdotal or based on observational, uncontrolled studies. Indirect evidence We identified 27 trials (in 28 publications) comparing a long-acting opioid to placebo (Evidence 41, 48, 54 Tables 2, 3, and 4). Twenty-three trials (3 good quality and the remainder fair quality) 11, 25, 26, 28, 40, 42, 43, 45-49, 52-62, 64 51 compared a long-acting opioid to an inert placebo.
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