By S. Treslott. Marymount University. 2018.
In ad- dition buy zetia 10mg low cost, children are at higher risk because they may absorb pro- portionally larger amounts and be more sensitive to systemic toxicity buy zetia 10mg with amex. Little adrenal suppression is likely to occur with doses less than 50 g weekly for an adult and 15 g weekly for a small child order 10 mg zetia otc, unless occlusive dressings are used. With topical antibiotics, superinfection and sensitization Superinfection with drug-resistant organisms may occur with any may occur. Sensitization may cause serious al- lergic reactions if the same drug is given systemically at a later time. With oral retinoids, observe for hypervitaminosis A (nausea, Adverse effects commonly occur with usual doses but are more vomiting, headache, blurred vision, eye irritation, conjunctivi- severe with higher doses. Observe for drug interactions Clinically signiﬁcant drug interactions rarely occur with topical agents. Nursing Notes: Apply Your Knowledge Answer: Never use a drug that is not labeled clearly. When pouring liquids, Answer: Ask the mother to describe when the rash appeared and always pour away from the label, so that accidental spillage will not impair the written drug label. Another concern in this situation is if its occurrence corresponded with diarrhea or new foods being sterility. Using previously opened bottles, where sterility cannot be introduced in the diet. Question the mother regarding the types guaranteed, is not acceptable practice. Stress the importance of keeping the baby clean and dry by changing the diaper frequently and washing with gentle soap and water. If the area is excoriated, a protective barrier can be achieved by applying a thin coat of many commercially available products such as petroleum jelly (Vaseline) or Desitin. Medical Clinics of North Review and Application Exercises America, 82, 1105–1133. During initial assessment of a client, what signs and symp- Drug facts and comparisons. If an adolescent client with acne asks your advice about Is Accutane really dangerous? The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics, over-the-counter topical drugs, which would you recom- 44 (Issue 1139, Sept. Dermatology for clinicians: A practical guide to com- mon skin conditions. Discuss reasons for avoiding or minimizing drugs when possible and to inform physi- drug therapy during pregnancy and lactation. Discuss the role of the home care nurse work- pregnancy-associated signs and symptoms. Discuss drugs used during labor and delivery chronic disorders during pregnancy and lactation. Teach adolescent and young adult women tics and nursing process implications. Susan works as a corporate lawyer and is married to a university professor. Susan is very excited about this planned pregnancy, but seems somewhat anxious as she asks lots of questions. Reﬂect on: The effects of drug use by the mother on the fetus during pregnancy. Essential information to provide Susan regarding the use of any prescription, nonprescription, or herbal drugs during pregnancy. OVERVIEW the fetus and maternal drug therapy to protect the fetus while providing therapeutic effects to the pregnant woman. Drug use during pregnancy and lactation requires special consideration because both the mother and the fetus or nurs- ing infant are affected. Few drugs are considered safe, and PREGNANCY AND LACTATION drug use is generally contraindicated. However, many preg- nant or lactating women take drugs for various reasons, in- Pregnancy is a dynamic state: Mother and fetus undergo cluding acute disorders that may or may not be associated physiologic changes that inﬂuence drug effects. In the preg- with pregnancy, chronic disorders that require continued nant woman, physiologic changes alter drug pharmacokinet- treatment during pregnancy or lactation, and habitual use of ics (Table 67–1), and drug effects are less predictable than in nontherapeutic drugs (eg, alcohol, tobacco, others). Most of the drugs in this chapter are purpose of this chapter is to describe potential drug effects on described elsewhere; they are discussed here in relation to 965 966 SECTION 11 DRUGS USED IN SPECIAL CONDITIONS TABLE 67–1 Pregnancy: Physiologic and Pharmacokinetic Changes Physiologic Change Pharmacokinetic Change Increased plasma volume and body water, approxi- Once absorbed into the bloodstream, a drug (especially if water soluble) is distrib- mately 50% in a normal pregnancy uted and diluted more than in the nonpregnant state. However, this effect may be offset by other pharmacokinetic changes of pregnancy.
Hospital- function should be monitored carefully during therapy and ization is recommended for the ﬁrst course of treatment purchase zetia 10 mg on line. Asparaginase often causes azotemia reliable because these clients are often in catabolic states char- (eg purchase zetia 10 mg without prescription, increased BUN); acute renal failure and fatal renal in- acterized by increased production of creatinine from break- sufﬁciency have been reported purchase zetia 10mg online. Bleomycin is rarely associated down of skeletal muscle and other proteins. Renal effects of with nephrotoxicity but its elimination half-life is prolonged in selected drugs are as follows: clients with a CrCl of less than 35 mL/minute. Cytarabine is • Carmustine and lomustine are associated with azotemia detoxiﬁed mainly by the liver. However, clients with renal im- and renal failure, usually with long-term IV administra- pairment may have more CNS-related adverse effects, and tion and large cumulative doses. Gemcitabine should be used • Cisplatin is nephrotoxic, and acute overdosage can with caution, although it has not been studied in clients with cause renal failure. Mild proteinuria and hematuria with repeated doses, cisplatin is given at 3- or 4-week were commonly reported during clinical trials, and hemolytic- intervals and renal function tests (eg, serum creatinine, uremic syndrome (HUS) was reported in a few clients. HUS blood urea nitrogen [BUN]) and serum electrolytes may be manifested by anemia, indications of blood cell break- (eg, sodium, potassium, calcium) are measured before down (eg, elevated bilirubin and reticulocyte counts), and renal each course of therapy. The drug should be stopped immediately if HUS lowed to return to normal before another dose is given. Nephrotoxicity may be reduced by the use of amifostine or IV hydration and mannitol. Some antineoplastic drugs are hepatotoxic and many are me- • Ifosfamide may increase BUN and serum creatinine, tabolized in the liver. In the presence of impaired hepatic but its major effect on the urinary tract is hemorrhagic function, risks of further impairment or accumulation of toxic cystitis, manifested by hematuria. Dosage reduction is needed with duced by the use of mesna, vigorous hydration, and de- some drugs and hepatic function should be monitored with laying drug administration if a predose urinalysis shows most. No dosage reduction is recommended indicate decreased ability to metabolize drugs. Clients with with mild impairment (CrCl 40 to 60 mL/minute), and metastatic cancer often have impaired liver function. He- • Melphalan should be reduced in dosage when given patic effects of these and selected other drugs are as follows: IV, to reduce accumulation and increased bone marrow • Asparaginase is hepatotoxic in most clients and may toxicity. It is unknown whether dosage reduction is increase preexisting hepatic impairment. Signs of 930 SECTION 11 DRUGS USED IN SPECIAL CONDITIONS liver impairment, which usually subside when the drug more likely to occur after prolonged use (eg, 2 years or is discontinued, include increased AST, ALT, alkaline longer) and after a total dose of at least 1. Cautious phosphatase, and bilirubin and decreased serum albu- use of MTX is especially indicated in clients with pre- min, cholesterol, and plasma ﬁbrinogen. Other drugs that should be used with caution because of • Dacarbazine is hepatotoxic, and a few cases of he- their hepatic effects include the antineoplastic hormones and patic vein thrombosis and fatal liver necrosis have hormone antagonists. Bicalutamide has a long serum • Daunorubicin, liposomal formulation, should be reduced half-life in clients with severe hepatic impairment. Excretion in dosage according to the serum bilirubin (eg, bilirubin may be delayed and the drug may accumulate. Liver func- ated with serum aminotransferase abnormalities, cholestatic tion tests should be done before drug administration, jaundice, hepatic encephalopathy, hepatic necrosis, and a and dosage of both regular and liposomal formulations few deaths. Liver function tests should be performed peri- should be reduced according to the serum bilirubin odically and at the ﬁrst sign or symptom of liver dysfunction (eg, bilirubin 1. Flutamide should be dis- dose; bilirubin >3 mg/dL, give one fourth the normal continued if jaundice develops in clients who do not have dose). Liver dam- niﬁcant hepatic impairment but should be used with age usually subsides if ﬂutamide is discontinued or if dosage caution. Nilutamide may cause hepatitis or increases in occurred in most clients during clinical trials. Liver enzymes should be checked at baseline • Idarubicin should not be given to clients with a serum and every 3 months. Medroxyprogesterone should be stopped if any mani- • Mercaptopurine causes hepatotoxicity, especially festations of impaired liver function develop. Encephalopathy and fatal liver changes in liver enzyme levels and occasionally more severe necrosis have occurred.
Examples of nonphenom- ena excluded from research are death by hexing quality 10 mg zetia, religious conver- sion discount 10mg zetia with mastercard, persuasion order 10mg zetia overnight delivery, hypnotism, trance induction, the placebo eﬀect and its opposite, the nocebo eﬀect, much of human behavior, and most psychosocial inﬂuences on disease (Frank and Frank 1991). Te biomolecular model for biological research is still far from exhausted as we move into the details of the genome, proteomics, and genetic transmission. Te exceptions I have listed here exist at the individual or social level and are outside the molecular sphere. All are phenomena that bear on clinical medicine and the care of sick people. Doherty developed pneumonia and had to be away from his practice for several months. In fact, many did not have any medically deﬁned disease I could document. Some carried diagnoses of pernicious anemia and were re- ceiving injections of vitamin B12 every month. It was the correct treatment for pernicious anemia but for the wrong patients and the wrong reason. Te Schilling test had just come out, and it could measure the ability of the gut to absorb radioactive B12. In fact, less than a handful of patients from all the practices we tested with the Schilling test had abnormal results. A lot of patients were being treated with B12 injections for pernicious anemia, but only a few had the disease. Doherty had a number of patients with emphysema who had normal timed vital capacities when I tested them in our new pulmonary function laboratory that I had set up. Others had diag- noses of rheumatoid arthritis with negative tests and ﬁndings for the disease. Many of the diagnoses had no counterpart in contempo- rary medical terminology. Examples of these were weak kidneys, spastic colon, dropped kidneys, retroverted or tilted uterus, hiatus hernia, and just stomach trouble. Not only did many of the patients fail to have the diagnosis given them by Dr. Doherty, they did not have any diagnosable medi- cal disease that I could ﬁnd. I was also conﬂicted about how to handle these diagnoses of nonexistent diseases. On one hand, I felt a strong obligation to be honest with the patients, but on the other hand, I felt uncomfortable counteracting much of Dr. He had found a system that worked for him—giving a diagnosis, no matter how far-fetched, was for him the best way to handle these patients with multiple symptoms. Diagnoses Without Diseases 35 Fortunately, I could avoid the conﬂict with Dr. He soon returned to his practice, and I had accepted an appointment on the faculty at the University of Alabama at the School of Medi- cine in Birmingham. Returning to academic medicine for me was like oxygen to a winded runner or water to a man lost in a desert. Teaching and see- ing complex clinical problems was what I wanted to do. My oﬃcial job at the School of Medicine at the University of Alabama was to run the N. Clinical Research Center, set up a system to review research applications, and provide clinical care and oversight to the patients in the research center. I spent most of my time teaching medical students, residents, and fellows in endo- crinology and seeing patients referred to the medical center with possible endocrine problems. Tere were only four trained endocrinologists in the entire state of Alabama, and we were all at the medical center in Birming- ham. Together we saw examples of every conceivable endocrine disease known at that time. Tere was no such specialty then as pediatric endocrinology, so we saw the full spectrum of life—ba- bies, children, and adults. Within a few years, I had seen examples of not only every recognized endocrine disorder but also nearly every known variation. Tis was the era when subspecialists ex- isted only in large academic medical centers.
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