By N. Rufus. Florida Southern College. 2018.
Although electroconvulsive thera- Others experience subjective distress discount forzest 20mg online, such py does not cure mental disorders generic 20mg forzest with visa, it can as an inner sense of weakness order forzest 20 mg on-line, jealousy, or bring about a remission of symptoms. It anxiety, although function in most of may be used in conjunction with psy- their life is minimally disturbed. For example, the use of MAO in- can affect individuals’ ability to function hibitors in the treatment of depression in an unstructured environment. Other of memory and perception can severely medications have side effects, such as limit independent function. Individuals drowsiness and sedation, that also affect may fail to carry out age-appropriate role daily function. Indi- Symptoms of the psychiatric disability viduals with a depressive disorder may lose may cause psychic stress and anxiety, fur- interest in sexual activity, whereas individ- ther compounding the disabling compo- uals with a bipolar depression may have ex- nent of the condition. The side effects of anguish over their impoverished life can some medications can alter sexual function be devastating. In addition, subjective manifesta- impaired function and the impact of their tions of lowered self-esteem and self-con- condition both on others and on their ﬁdence may make it more difﬁcult for future may cause considerable pain and individuals to form intimate relationships. In some instances, individu- als with psychiatric disability may be re- Social Issues luctant to seek appropriate help because of their fear of the stigma associated with The impact of a psychiatric disability on psychiatric conditions that require profes- social function also depends on the nature sional help. Individuals who experi- als may not be aware of their symptoms ence mania as a part of their disability may and the effect of their symptoms on func- enjoy the euphoria and feel that it con- tion, which also hinders them from using tributes to their social well-being. Even though attitudes of society have become more accepting of individuals Lifestyle Issues with mental illness, family members may continue to be resistant to recognizing the The degree to which psychiatric disabil- problem and pursuing appropriate treat- ity affects individuals’ lifestyle depends to ment (Hall & Purdy, 2000). If, however, a great extent on the nature of the condi- individuals manifest bizarre, abusive, or tion. Some psychiatric disabilities so severe- socially offensive behavior, family members ly impair individuals’ ability to carry on the or others within a social group may avoid activities of daily living that constant the individual altogether, leaving him or supervision or hospitalization is necessary. In other instances, individuals are able to Other psychiatric disabilities may lead carry on these activities, but in an altered to social withdrawal. These stresses may be rearrange their schedules so that they can caused by their objective problems in deal- attend therapy sessions. Some medications ing with the individuals and their condi- used in the treatment of psychiatric dis- tion, as well as by more subjective psycho- ability may require special lifestyle consid- logical distress (Hall & Purdy, 2000). Psychosocial and Vocational Issues in Psychiatric Disability 199 Psychiatric disabilities, especially those psychiatric disability (Tschopp, Bishop, & in which individuals need close supervi- Mulvihill, 2001). The skills, aptitude, sion or long-term care and treatment, may motivation, and objective symptoms of place ﬁnancial hardships on their family individuals with psychiatric disability are because of medical bills, the individual’s important, and their ability to endure and economic dependency, and special needs cope with stress and to engage in active related to household functioning. In some problem solving also determines their abil- instances, the demands of caregiving may ity to work. Job restrictions may be relat- require family members to curtail their ed to job pressure or the ability to work social activities or alter their relationships with others, regardless of the individual’s with friends and acquaintances. The time level of skill or physical and cognitive abil- commitments of caregiving may lead to ity to perform work-related tasks. It may be necessary to Social barriers are frequently erected arrange scheduled absences so that indi- against individuals with a mental disorder viduals can attend therapy sessions. Social stigma may medications used in treatment may pro- be the result of fear of individuals’ behav- duce side effects, such as drowsiness or ior, ignorance about psychiatric disabili- sedation, that could adversely affect work ty, or feelings of inadequacy in interacting performances. In addition, individuals’ with those who have psychiatric disabili- level of adherence to the therapeutic reg- ty. Regardless of the cause, the results can imen is especially important if failure to be a source of continuing stress for individ- do so means possible relapse and recur- uals and their families, as well as a barri- rence of symptoms. Social Individuals’ reaction to the work en- stigma and stereotypes can also have an vironment, including noise and distrac- effect on the extent of the deﬁcits individ- tions, should be taken into account, as uals experience. Deﬁcits sometimes occur should their level of personal responsibil- not only because of the psychiatric condi- ity and ability for self-direction and deci- tion, but also because of the public’s reac- sion making. Individuals’ ﬂexibility to take advantage of chance occurrences and Individuals with psychiatric disability their degree of ﬂexibility in the workplace have a condition that limits their capaci- must also be taken into consideration ty to perform certain tasks and functions (Szymanski, 2000). Some individuals may and their ability to perform certain roles need a more structured work environ- (Farkas & Anthony, 2001). The ability to ment; in some instances, a workshop envi- work depends on the type of disability, the ronment may be preferable. Some individ- type of work in which they are involved, uals’ expectations of work or of their own and the attitudes of those within the work capabilities may be unrealistic. Although work is important to these unrealistic notions are identiﬁed and increase self-esteem for those with a num- dealt with before they enter or reenter the ber of disabilities, it can be an especially work setting, discouragement, disappoint- strong therapeutic tool for those with a ment, or even relapse may occur.
Not only dividuals with schizophrenia may have dif- does it exist as a primary disability purchase forzest 20mg overnight delivery, but it ﬁculty coping with stress 20mg forzest. Consequently forzest 20mg, also has the potential to coexist with any the amount of physical and emotional stress chronic illness or disability (Bishop & in the workplace and individuals’ ability Sweet, 2000). Individuals with a major depressive epi- Mood disorders consist of conditions in sode experience feelings of hopelessness which the characteristic symptom is distur- and discouragement, loss of interest in bance in mood. Symptoms of mood disor- activities previously found pleasurable, ders usually occur when individuals are in decreased energy, and difficulty with their twenties; however, depressive disor- memory. They may also express feelings ders may be experienced as early as infan- of worthlessness or guilt and have im- cy. Hospitalization is frequently necessary paired cognitive functions, expressing during the acute phase of mood disorders the inability to concentrate or to make de- because of the severity of the disturbance cisions. Other symptoms, such as sleep that the disorder creates in interpersonal and appetite disturbances (too much or and/or occupational functioning. Distur- too little sleep; weight gain or weight loss), bances in mood can be subdivided into are called vegetative signs. The degree of impairment due to major depression varies, although social and Major Depressive Disorder occupational activities are usually affect- ed to some degree. Chronic depression Major depression is deﬁned by de- causes marked impairment in psychosoci- pressed mood or loss of interest in nearly al function and work performance (Keller all activities (or both for at least 2 weeks) et al. With severe de- that is accompanied by three or more of pression, incapacitation can be so great the following symptoms: that individuals are unable to attend to their own daily needs, such as basic • insomnia or hypersomnia (sleeping hygiene and nutritional needs. During manic epi- Dysthymia and Cyclothymia sodes, mood becomes distinctly elevated Dysthymia is a mood disorder charac- and behavior hyperactive. Individuals in terized by symptoms similar to those expe- a manic episode appear ﬂamboyant and rienced in major depression, but to a lesser overly enthusiastic, often engaging in degree. Although symptoms are not so excessive activity and needing little sleep. A mixed major depressive disorder and dysthymia episode is characterized by symptoms is the severity and duration of the symp- involving rapidly changing moods alter- toms. Their attention shifts rapid- acterized by symptoms similar to those of ly from one activity to another unrelated bipolar disorders, with both hypomanic activity with little provocation. Be- have grandiose delusions in which they cause symptoms are usually milder, cyclo- believe that they have special skills, knowl- thymia causes less impairment in function edge, or relationships. The distinc- occur during a manic episode and often tion between bipolar disorders and cyclo- relate to individuals’ mood or delusions. Bipolar II Disorders Bipolar II disorders are characterized by Anxiety Disorders the occurrence of at least one major de- There are several different types of anxi- pressive episode and at least one hypoman- ety disorders. The presence of the hypomanic clude not only anxiety but also increased episode distinguishes bipolar II disorders arousal and avoidance of situations that the from major depressive disorders (American individual perceives as anxiety provoking. As already described, a major depressive episode is char- Panic Disorders acterized by loss of interest in activities, sadness, and depressed mood. A hypoman- Panic disorders are types of anxiety dis- ic episode is characterized by elevated or orders in which individuals experience irritable mood over a period of time that feelings of intense fear or discomfort; they is not quite as severe as a manic state. If indi- are characterized by panic attacks, episodes Common Psychiatric Disabilities 187 in which the individual has feelings of Impairments resulting from phobias may intense anxiety or terror, accompanied by vary from mild to severe. A phobia may a sense of impending doom (American be more of a nuisance than a disability. During a the other hand, a phobia may be so dis- panic attack, individuals experience short- abling that individuals are unable to func- ness of breath, increased heart rate and tion effectively in their day-to-day activ- palpitations, sweating, and, at times, nau- ities if the phobia causes them to avoid sea or other physical discomfort. Panic particular objects or situations or causes attacks are not triggered by a certain event such anxiety that they are unable or un- and, at least initially, are unpredictable. In themselves, they may be Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder only mildly debilitating. Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a chron- Panic disorder is distinguished from gen- ic disorder that can cause signiﬁcant dis- eralized anxiety in that individuals with ability if not treated, with symptoms panic disorders become preoccupied with following a waxing and waning course the physical symptoms associated with a (Maj, Sartorius, Okasha, & Zohar, 2002). Treatment Individuals with an obsessive-compulsive focuses on amelioration of symptoms disorder have recurrent obsessions (per- through medication and counseling. Agoraphobia For instance, they may have recur- Panic disorders are sometimes accompa- rent thoughts of the death of a loved one, nied by agoraphobia, the fear of being in or they may have an irresistible urge to a situation or place in which it might be perform repetitively some behavior that difﬁcult or embarrassing to escape or in seems purposeless, such as turning a light which there may be no help available if on and off three times before retiring for the individual experiences a panic attack. Attempts by individuals to ig- Although not all individuals who have nore the compulsions only increase anx- panic attacks experience agoraphobia, iety, discomfort, and distress. Medi- venture outside their home alone, or they cation is often used in combination with may be reluctant to travel by car, bus, or cognitive-behavioral therapy, especially other common means of transportation.
Most commonly in adults over 60 discount forzest 20mg on-line, it results not lective advantage is thought to have favored the persist- from deficient dietary intake but from a decreased vitamin ence of the HbS gene discount forzest 20mg otc, especially in regions where malaria B12 absorption by the small intestine buy forzest 20mg low cost. Sickle-cell disease represents the homozygous linked to an autoimmune disease in which there is im- condition (S/S) and occurs in about 0. The onset of sickle-cell anemia occurs in infancy as larly the gastric mucosa. Pa- Iron-deficiency anemia is the most common cause of tients with sickle-cell anemia have 80% HbS in their blood anemia worldwide. Although it occurs in both developed with a decrease or an absence of normal HbA. In de- Whatever the cause of anemia, the pathophysiological veloped countries, the cause is usually due to pregnancy effect is the same—hypoxemia. Symptoms include pallor or chronic blood loss due to gastrointestinal ulcers or neo- of the lips and skin, weakness, fatigue, lethargy, dizziness, plasms. If the anemia is severe, myocardial hypoxia account for most cases of iron-deficiency anemia. Only a small amount of venous admix- totally obstructed by a foreign object (such as a peanut) or ture is required to lower systemic arterial PO2, due to the by tumors. Patients with hypoxemia stemming from a shunt nature of the oxyhemoglobin equilibrium curve. This can also have a high A-aO2 gradient, low PO2, and low O2 con- be seen from Figure 21. The oxygen content of the blood leaving these ratio and a shunt is to have the patient breathe 100% O2 for alveoli is 16. If the patient’s PaO2 is 150 mm Hg, the cause because it has the greatest effect on lowering both the PO2 of hypoxemia is a shunt. The principle for using 100% O2 and the O2 content because of the nonlinear shape of the is illustrated in Figure 21. However, the low arterial PO2 does CO2 equilibrium curve is nearly linear, which allows excess not get corrected by breathing 100% O2 in a patient with CO2 to be removed from the blood by the lungs.. When a major pulmonary artery becomes occluded, a greater por- Generalized Hypoventilation. Generalized hypoventila- tion of the cardiac output is redirected to another part of tion, the third most common cause of hypoxemia, occurs the lungs, resulting in overperfusion with respect to alveo-. This causes a regionally low VA/Qratio, and leads to an increase in venous admixture. The next most common cause of hypoxemia is a 100% O100% O22 shunt, either a right-to-left anatomic shunt or an absolute VA 1 VA 10 VA 10 = = = Q 10 Q 10 Q 1 20 20 16 16 12 12 8 8 4 4 0 200 400 600 0 20 60 100 140 PO2 (mm Hg) PO2 (mm Hg) FIGURE 21. PO2 in systemic arterial blood in a patient with a librium curve, a high A/ ratio has little effect on arterial O2 con- shunt does not increase above 150 mm Hg during the 15-minute tent. The shunted blood is not exposed to 100% O2, and the tio can dramatically lower PO2 in blood leaving the lungs. CHAPTER 21 Gas Transfer and Transport 361 arise from a chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (such Diffusion Block. The least common cause of hypoxemia as emphysema) or depressed respiration (as a result of a is a diffusion block. This condition occurs when the diffu- head injury or a drug overdose, for example). Since ventila- sion distance across the alveolar-capillary membrane is in- tion is depressed, there is also a significant increase in arte- creased or the permeability of the alveolar-capillary mem- rial PCO2 with a concomitant decrease in arterial pH. It is characterized by a low PaO2, high generalized hypoventilation, total ventilation is insufficient A-aO2 gradient, and high PaCO2. Pulmonary edema is one to maintain normal systemic arterial PO2 and PCO2. Examining the A-aO2 gra- as a result of the alveolar and arterial PO2 being lowered dient or PaCO2 and/or breathing 100% oxygen distin- equally. If a patient has a low PaO2 and a normal A-aO2 gra- guishes the four types. For example, if a patient has a low dient, the cause of hypoxemia is entirely due to generalized PaO2, high PaCO2, and normal A-aO2 gradient, the cause hypoventilation. The best corrective measure for general- of hypoxemia is generalized hypoventilation.
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